Following the first Monotonik release from Swedish idm-ish artist Stefan Ternemar, aka ST, in 2003, we waited around a little, and suddenly, another EP popped up. Interestingly, although the first 'Emotions In A Box' release was very much epic electronic, almost Chris Huelsbeck-ian synthwork, everyone evolves, and thanks to guest spots from a fellow Swedish Monotonik artist (check the ID3 tags for a hint), and some new influences, the 'I'll Meet You There EP' keeps the epic melodies, but slides... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 8 reviews ) Topic: Electronic
This third set of releases, spanning October 2002 to October 2003, from our net.label Monotonik showcases more of the diversity between retro beepiness and increasing indielectronic influences.Some highlights might include the sublime Grandma EPs, showcasing one of the youngest and breakthrough-est Monotonik artists, some gorgeous Australian electronics with Super Science's re-issues, more retro beep from the 'Best Of AHX' compilation, and lots more good stuff from Kaamos, Ernesto Aeroflot and... Topics: Electronic, IDM, Bleep
A long, long time in the making, U.S. artist Troupe presents his first EP for Monotonik, 'It's Really Pretty Simple After All', a plain spectacular mix of demo-scene inspired electronica, soaring melodies, and beautiful vocals. Imagine, if you will, an American who has grown up and been musically influenced by the greats of the Amiga demo-scene - which this label itself was birthed from in 1996. Then mix in transcendent vocals reminiscent of favorite Monotonik releases like Bliss, and you get... favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 3 reviews )
This first set of free to download, Creative Commons-licensed MP3 releases from our electronica-based net.label, Monotonik (http://www.monotonik.com), were originally released from January 1999 to March 2001. They chronicle the period after Monotonik decided to stop releasing .MOD files, and start releasing those new-fangled (at the time!) .MP3s. Some highlights might include Lackluster's languidly beautiful "Bothersome (Mother Mix)", later to feature on his lovely 'Container' album... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 3 reviews ) Topics: Electronic, Techno, IDM, Bleep
This second set of MP3 releases from our net.label Monotonik was originally released from March 2001 to September 2002, when we were both breaking out the retro beep releases and continuing along the same chilled idm path.Some highlights might include Idmonster's beautifully delicate 'The Force May Be With You', Sleepy Town Manufacture's peaceful Russian IDM, some superquirky goodness from Phasmid, retro but gorgeous techno from Tweeter, amazing beepiness from both Aleksi Eeben and Virt, more... Topics: Trip-Hop, IDM, Bleep, Synth
Oh my. Ever since we at Monotonik heard Swedish bleep-metal group Machinae Supremacy cover Chris Huelsbeck's classic 'Great Giana Sisters' theme in heart-rendingly wonderful .SID chiptune vs. Spinal Tap style, we've been major, major fans. So, after the group completed the soundtrack to (extremely fun) PC indie shoot-em-up Jets 'N Guns (http://jng.rakeingrass.com/), and made the entire higher-bitrate quality OST available to fans on their official homepage (http://www.machinaesupremacy.com/),... favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 6 reviews ) Topic: Bleep
Welcome to Monotonik's brand new year, courtesy of a debut release (or is it?) from Finn and self-proclaimed cosmic superspy, Aleksi Virta. He fearlessly busts out this supremely accomplished album of jazzy, dubby electronics, originally released on a scandalously limited, horrendously collectible 100-copy sold-out CDR edition, and now, thankfully available to the general public via the wonders of the Internet. So basically, we're looking at everything from the headnodding organ jam of 'Nebulae... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 20 reviews ) Topics: Electronic, Jazz+Funk, Neo-cosmic
In the form of a Valentine's Day gift to all from Russian idm maestro Sleepy Town Manufacture, which Monotonik has sneakily re-packaged and re-gifted to the entire world, we're proud to present 'For You & For Me', an entire double album picking some of the best from STM's unreleased output from 1999 to 2002, with a number of tracks specially updated and remastered for this compilation. Sleepy Town, formerly a duo/trio, and now down to a single member, are particularly known for their... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 5 reviews ) Topics: IDM, Electronic
And the band played on. With the band, in this case, being made up of the rather smart Finnish-type Vae, formerly known as Strala, and boss of the smart Net.label Kahvi (recently resurrected from purgatory, and looking all the better for it!)In any case, "Harry Slazenger" (no relation to Jake, Vae assures us..) is an initially distant, suddenly pendulum-like swing through sweetly toned electronic pop music - like Kraftwerk without the Teutonic bent, or a massively slowed-down... Topic: Electronic
We're delighted to debut the fourth Monotonik release from prodigious U.S. idm veteran Transient, in the form of the 20-track 'Hexual Ceiling' album. He's previously released on multiple major netlabels such as Kikapu, Ogredung and Miasmah, as well as debuting remixes and other tracks on labels such as Darla and TBTMO, plus his own Noisy Vagabond, and this longform effort doesn't disappoint. Anyhow, there are all kinds of highlights to the album, from the delightful drift of lead-off track... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews )
This new release is most definitely Monotonik's first from Malaysia, thanks to duo Euseng and Liang, also known as Muxu, who've followed up their self-released debut album 'Above Us, A Clear Summer Sky' with this wonderful 6-track EP, 'Show Us Your Weak Side', here as the 190th release on Mono. The duo first met for a joint band project - with Liang playing guitar for delightfully named band Citizens of Ice-Cream, but set up Muxu in early 2006. They've also contributed a track to the Mu-nest...
Seriously, what else is there to say about Finnish old-school Amiga demo scene legend Aleksi Eeben, aka Heatbeat? Way back in 1990 or so, when he was in his early teens, he produced some of the best music the Amiga has ever heard. As his talent grew throughout the '90s and into the new century, his jazz influences and unique retro electronic background (he also codes music composition software for the Commodore 64, Game Boy and even VIC-20) have produced an unbelievably unique style. The... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews )
We found Datassette after he linked to Monotonik from his own artist website. Fortunately, it turns out that he hearts us, and we heart him, since the UK-based artist with the retro-hardware themed pseudonym cuts up a lovely mix of previous Monotonik artists like Vim! and Braces Tower, alternating funky electronica with the geekier bleep end of the spectrum, but coming out all wine and roses in the originality stakes. Starting out with the BBC Radiophonic Workshop drift of 'Microfocus', it's... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews ) Topic: Bleep
The latest release for guitar and beat-strewn idm artist Beak on Monotonik, following the 'Amoral Mayor Earwig EP' back in 2004 and 'El Hacedor EP' in 2005, the 'Bishop Whitney EP' continues his extremely unique mix of strongly played guitar, acoustic noises and cut-up percussion in fine, fine style. This time, we start out with the characteristic plucked freneticism of 'Context Clues', before seguing into the languid crawl of 'Teach Texas Manner', further showcasing his totally individual,... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 4 reviews )
This set of releases, on Monotonik breaks/eclectic sublabel Mono211, span over 4 years, from late 1999 through late 2003, and include everything from understated triphop, through a concentration on harder techno and drum and bass influences, right through to the current solidifying of style on UK-influenced 'nu-chill' and eclectic. Basically, if it's not beep or idm enough to go on Monotonik, but still rocks,it gets shoved onto Mono211.Highlights might include Vinyl Matt's super-mellow 'From... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews ) Topics: Drum & Bass, Trip-Hop, Break Beats
Another debut on Monotonik, and honestly, somewhat of a spectacular one from SinQ, aka Sander van Oirschot, a Dutch electronic musician who's produced, in his album 'Passage', one of our favorite works so far this year - and we're lucky enough to be able to release it for free, too! Completely licensed via Creative Commons, and even using multiple CC-licensed recordings as samples, SinQ's blend of triphop, electronics, and ambient is evocative and beautiful, with first track 'Who's Afraid Of... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews )
This time round, a debut release from Oregon's Crashed By Car,recent founder of the beautiful Pleasedosomething net.label, and indielectronic star in the making, with net.releases on Kikapu and 8BitRecs, amongst others. The "Fictions And Fires EP" is a spectacularly well-crafted piece of organic electronics, with highlights including the smooth drift of "Full Speed Dead", the muted triumph of "Bees", and the almost Harold Budd-esque ambient beauty of "Skylight... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 9 reviews ) Topics: Indie, Electronic
We're delighted to be able to release Finland's idm maestro Planet Boelex's third EP for Monotonik, 'Misplaced', following some enchanting EPs and single releases for netlabels including Ogredung, Aerotone, and Afe Records. Actually, it's arguably the most reflective of the bunch, even including guest vocals and guitar, as Ossi, aka Boelex himself, stretches across ever more expansive, ambient Scandinavian vistas. The first track out of the gate, 'Only Slightly Distant', showcases a style... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 5 reviews )
We're delighted to present a second release from Finnish graphic artist and musician Flutterspot, following the 'Labmat EP' back in early 2006, and this time round, 'Suitable For A Desire To Share' is almost 40 minutes of lushly layered electronic music to die for - or at least freeze a little bit. We start off with the oddly titled 'Small, Brightly Coloured, Highly Arboreal', which hops up into the trees for some almost Boards Of Canada-esque loping beats and marvellously complex electronic... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 3 reviews )
We're delighted to welcome back René 'Ckid' Margraff, the German electronic artist who released on Monotonik back in 2000 (as Crashkid) and 2001, and went on to notable physical releases on Becalmed and Duotone Records, back to the label with a beautifully formed, evocative full-length album, 'Down With Ghosts'. Full of chanted and whispered vocals and an evocative, almost shoegaze-centric attitude to idm/electronics, 'Down With Ghosts' starts with the semi-conscious drawl of 'From A To Z',... favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 4 reviews )
The second release from Sweden's Bliss, aka Henrik Jose, and this lovingly crafted 3-track EP cements his reputation as creator of some of the lushest, most beautiful electronics around. With his previous net.label releases on Fairlight Music and success at the Assembly demoparty last year, his vocal-blended, multi-layered, live instrument-appropriating angle creates, well, just sublime results, well-deserving of a record deal any time now, we reckon.This EP starts out with 'Transportation Is... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews ) Topic: IDM
Some of the releasers on Monotonik are more mysterious than others. But we quite enjoy it when the more shadowy ones turn up, slip us a gorgeous piece of music, and then slink away into the ether again. All we know about Gschmidt is that he might be named after a mathematic process, his previous 'Nibiru Coming' release precis-ed rogue planet paranoia excellently, and this new 'Time Tolled EP' is a wonderful journey through some kind of wilfully odd, strangely beautiful soundscape. But if we get... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews ) Topic: Electronic
You may have heard of German idm stars New Delhi FM from their excellent album release on Soulseek Records back in 2003, 'Far From Yesterday'. Though the group originally started as a three-piece collective consisting of Sandro Boege, Paul Krege and Marc Hofling, nowadays, just Sandro is at the helm, and Monotonik is proud to present 'Daylight Confusion', a dense 55-minute 'EP' that's the first major release from New Delhi FM in over 2 years. 'Daylight Confusion' is particularly interesting... favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 3 reviews )
Having discovered Japanese techno artist Tatsu from his wonderful early work on his net.label Bumpfoot, we co-opted him to do an exclusive new EP on Monotonik, and the immensely lush 6-track 'August EP' is the result, showcasing the immensely pure, almost Detroit-tinged pastoral electronica - no tricks, no feints, just a trip back to the classics. We start with 'Stillness/Introspective Me', which briefly showcases some gorgeous ambience, before moving straight into 'Sky and Sea/Daytime Dream',... favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 7 reviews )
We're proud to present the debut release on Monotonik from Northbound, a band consisting of Mikko Roisko and Olli Jäderholm, self-described as "two guys from southern Finland, soon to reach their mid-twenties" - and 'Landscapes Of Late' is gorgeous live instrument-filled nu-chill groove. We ran into Northbound through their oblique connections with the TPOLM demo-scene crew and IRC channel, and they explain of their project: "We have both been making music for about 4 years now,... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 4 reviews )
Something different, this time out, with the part nu-chill, part world music, part live-played album, 'Rai-Ken' from Bristol, UK native Ollie Cram - it's pitched somewhere between the chillout of previous Monotonik releaser Izmar and something much further out than that, and that's why we dig it. Things start out with 'Over Yonder', all interplay with the live-played organ - there's also guitar, keyboards, synth, bass, and mandolin played live on the album by Mr. Cram himself - before we move...
We're delighted to present a second EP from Finnish artist Planet Boelex, following his first release for Monotonik in the form of the 'Sinking In The Soup EP'. Boelex is also known as long-time .MOD artist Tweeter, a noted alumni of early labels such as Voodoo, and continues to delight allcomers with his beautifully composed, wonderfully melodic idm sound - oddly retro, but somehow still relevant. The 'Second Thoughts EP' starts with the slow build of 'Shower Curtain', all shimmering melody... favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 7 reviews )
This is, believe it or not, the first Monotonik release for Kuu (formerly known as Substance, and definitively known as Finland's very own Joonas Vahamaki) since 1999 (!). But after a 7 year absence, we're delighted to welcome him back to the fold with the awesome 'Ioplus EP', 4 tracks of beautifully crunchy IDM. Since we last released music from him, he's done a bunch of neat work for various labels, most recently returning to the breakbeat hardcore massif with fellow Finn Niko Virta and their...
A triumphant Monotonik debut from glitched-up UK resident BitBasic, whose 'Grating Rainbows' EP speeds through 8 tracks in just 18 minutes, and offers a whirlwhind tour to some deliciously cut-up drill & bass action, someone between early Squarepusher, our very own Beak, and somewhere entirely new. Hawesome. Things start out with the loopy, surreal 'Soap', before the lush, hiphop-infused 'Emaze' wanders into view, all lyrical jazz riffs and drilled-up drums, gloriously sunny throughout. And... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews )
In tracking some of the more obscure niches of the Japanese retro-bleep music scene, Monotonik has picked up a gem or two in the past (see: Blasterhead). And we're pleased to say that we've struck oil again (or at least, some gushing black pixels) with the first album from Japanese duo Kplecraft, 'KNMS-001', a deliciously alternative blend of Game Boy bleep and jazz-techno improvisation. Here's what you need to know. Kplecraft consists of Kuske (Nintendo Game Boy with Nanoloop 1.2, saxophone,... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews ) Topic: Bleep
Having been associated with Australian electronica chap Tim Koch since all the way back in 1998, when he released .MOD tracks as Serkul (and later as Thug!) on the pre-MP3 version of Monotonik, we're delighted that he's returned, just as he releases the 'Faena' CD on M3rck Records (North America) and his own-affiliated Surgery Records (Australia), with 'Elk Meadow EP', a collection of miscellaneous unreleased smartness from the past few years. Koch's other output has included albums and EPs on... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews )
This time, a fine debut from mysterious Norwegian idm-er Coax, also known as Reflex, and with his only previous release being the ultra-obscure, self-released 'Showcase' CD. He helps us out on Monotonik with a first release in the form of the electro-tinged, extremely catchy, almost retro video game-like electronics of the 'Blackened EP' - and we thank him. First up is the pounding, electro-happy beat of '1984', all pure sinewaves and sustain, as Coax taps into the pure melodies and simple joys... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews )
One of the first all-ambient releases on Monotonik in quite some time, this 3-track EP from relatively undiscovered Japanese artist Akira Kosemura is a beautifully naturalistic drift through what sounds like field recordings twinned with sweet sine waves melodies - reminiscent of anything from Lackluster at his most ambient to fellow Japanese Monotonik releaser Sabii. Thus, we have three delicate treats to enjoy - firstly, 'Forest In The Morning' has a repeated motif and an almost sepuchral... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews )
Dutch artist Izmar has released multiple times on both Monotonik and Mono211 before, gaining a semi-fanatical following for his immensely mellow, immensely beautiful blend of electronics and Fila Brazillia-style nu-chill, and we're delighted to present some of the latest fruits of his labors, in the form of the 'Secular EP'. The whole kit and caboodle starts out with the predictably named 'Opening', which showcases the immensely natural-sounding jam that characterizes this EP - all slowly... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews )
He released one of the first ever Monotonik .MOD releases, allthe way back in 1997, and over 6 years and several highly acclaimed CDs later, Finnish electronic wiz Lackluster, aka Esa Ruoho, fresh from live sets in Ireland and Russia and his recent 'Showcase' compilation CD on Merck Records, has handed over the keys to his mind and returned to the net.label fold with this sublime 5-track EP.Right off the bat, 'Cut1' comes out with a tremendously complex blend of Lackluster's signature smooth... favoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews )
We've known of Finnish idm artist Tweeter for several years, stemming from his association with former Monotonik artist Substance's .MOD label Voodoo, and have previously been delighted to release his gloriously smooth electronic stylings on the label. Now, the notoriously painstaking artist formerly known as Tweeter is called Planet Boelex (actually the name of his last release on Monotonik), and he makes a triumphant return to us with the 'Sinking In The Soup EP'. So, we start this particular... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews ) Topic: Electronic
We're proud to welcome the debut release on Monotonik from Stefan Ternemar, the Swedish artist also known as S.T. 'Emotions In A Box' is Stefan's first set of songs released anywhere outside his own webpage, and it's a fitting introduction to his bold, melodically strident idm electronics. First off would be 'Downtown', almost Huelsbeck-ian in its wish to get straight down to brass tacks and blast you with carefully considered catchiness, heaping layer upon layer of gorgeously synthetic sounds... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 7 reviews ) Topics: IDM, Game
Vae, most excellent proprietor of the net.label Kahvi, kindly gives us his 2nd release on Monotonik, and this one's a treat - melodically beautiful, and complete with ambient duck.qwak action, the key element of any classic song in this day and age.So whether it be the nifty serene organ loop or the shuffle-crack percussion which really give you the chills on this particular number, Vae's friend (the fowl who's silver, of course!) provides a touching, emotion-filled experience for all of us.... Topic: Electronic
This 4th album from Ernesto Aeroflot comes from a mysterious fellow who's released on net.label Commie and a host of smaller labels under names/groups such as TranceYlvania, Sky Wide Jazz, Oodi & Elegia, High Grade Multi Purpose Intelligent Terminal (!), and more. This 10-trackalbum showcases his unpredictable but riveting style excellently,as '80s bleep sounds and stuttering electro mix up with distortedunrest, sweeping electronica, and a wholly surprising bonus cut to create something... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews ) Topic: Electronic
A debut, then, for Florida-based Kyle Wyss, under his electronic music alias Chromatic Flights, with the floating, serene indietronica of 'Memories From The Audible Colour Wheel EP' - some of the lusher, more indie-influenced instrumental grooves we've run across in a while. Wyss is just 17 years old, and we'll let him explain: "This is my first solo EP (Memories from the Audible Colour Wheel), but I've been playing in an indie/experimental rock band for about 4 years. I decided over the... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 3 reviews )
We've now been releasing tracks from UK electronic wunderkid Vim! for, well, seven and a half years, on both .MOD and this 'new-fangled' .MP3. That's quite a long time, certainly by netlabel standards. And since we started up, he's released albums on Surgery Records, remixes on Merck and Carpark, and a host of EPs on Monotonik. So, we're now delighted to be able to present an MP3 version of his recent, _extremely_ smart, _extremely_ limited edition CDR, 'A Random Collection Of Consonants', on... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 3 reviews ) Topic: Electronic
We're delighted to welcome a return for Finnish artist Teemu Kiiskila, aka Ernesto Aeroflot, whose 'Oll Tolk'n' no Ding Atcheev'd' album we released back in 2003, and who is a veteran of other netlabel releases on Commie and Kikapu under multiple aliases. This time round, he's back with an entire album of wonderfully diverse electronics, 'Strogloy - Everything Within', which we're very pleased to be putting out on Monotonik. One of the keys to Ernesto Aeroflot's charms, at least in our eyes, is...
The latest iteration of the Monotonik archives includes mtk121-138, from brand-new idm goodness from Sense, through funky UK nu-chill from Braces Tower, through great Russian double albums from Russian chill-out demi-gods Sleepy Town Manufacture, and more.
This one's been coming for a while, but the latest release from incredibly unconventional Finnish musician Aleksi Eeben (the .MOD artist formerly known as Heatbeat) is the tremendously obtuse but lovable 'Three Times The Music', 8 tracks of offbeat but somewhat gorgeous bleeps and bloops. Aleksi is, as ever, a bit of a jazz fan, and the kind of melodies and stylings he picks makes him an acquired taste, to say the least. But if you dig the odd, odd grooving of first track 'Clockwork', then...
U.S. veteran idm artist Transient is practically an old hand at Monotonik releases now, since this is his third for the label, quite apart from some stunning EPs and albums for netlabels like One and his own Noisy Vagabond Recordings. And 'Work/Play EP' is a wonderful, aptly named split album, since it was composed both on work breaks with a Palm handheld (the 'Work' half) and at home using Impulse Tracker (the 'Play' half), and both halves show inspired mastery of melody, vocoded vocals, and... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 1 reviews )
Monotonik is delighted to present a free, full six-track EP from Holland's Jasper Boer, aka Jap Jap, in the form of 'A Resonant Discovery', including a remix by Dutch artist Morgenfish. The EP consists of varied types of beautifully smooth idm pieces coupled with evolving melodic motifs, which go through different moods: from chillout ambient to more uptempo material. This showcases Jap Jap's signature style of solidly produced minimal yet melodic style of dance, which draws inspiration from...
We're absolutely delighted to put out a third release from Swedish electronic artist Bliss, aka Henrik Jose, over a year after his well-received 'It's Not The Sweetness...' EP. Since then, he's collaborated with music video directors Pleix (Basement Jaxx, Plaid, Futureshock) on an experimental video, while continuing to work on new material, but shines out his late 2003 vintage in 'Goodbye Brain, Hello Heart EP', a shimmering block of entirely instrumental sound produced in his Lund studio with... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 5 reviews )
Not necessarily one of Monotonik's most 'normal' releases, but heartily welcomed anyhow, this unconventional glitch-electronic 7-track EP is from the oddly named Gaza F*gg*t, who can best be described as, well, an alter ego of a previous Monotonik releaser. It all starts off with the gentle organ of 'Horse With Gold Teeth', before the latter end of the track gets all warped and Japanese-speech sampling, before the completely awesome 'Rotten Fruit Messageboard Apology' arrives, all explicit... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 2 reviews )
We continue proceedings with this mp3 from Distance, aka Lackluster, our Finnish amigo and master of the understated ambient techno mood. This particular track drifts and phases its way around in a most attractive way.. so, just chill out, put your feet up and check out this most glacial of grooves. Yet again Monotonik tends towards the Pete Namlook/FAX stylings we admire so much. Topics: Electronic, IDM
It's good to come back to what you know, and we felt like UK artist Braces Tower, previously member of the Wiija-signed, Radiohead-supporting, Peel Session-ing Loveblobs way back in the mists of time, was due another release on Monotonik with his delightful blend of sass, electronics, and intelligent sampledelica, since his first 'Pshhh EP' was so well received by all a year or two back. So we asked him nicely, and the round-up compilation 'Pasteism' is the unholy result. So there's a great... favoritefavoritefavoritefavoritefavorite ( 3 reviews ) Topic: Electronic